How no-confidence votes work in Britain

Boris Johnson, Britain’s alleged prime minister, survived a vote of no confidence this week, and we could get all mopey about that if we wanted to, but instead let’s take the opportunity to have a good old crawl around the dusty corners of the British political system and see what we can find. Old coins? Abandoned rulebooks? Spiders? 

Nope, sorry. We find the no-confidence vote, in all its convoluted glory.


What is the no-confidence vote? 

The one Johnson just survived was an internal party affair, run by the Conservatives, the party with a majority in the House of Commons. That’s because what they’re voting on isn’t just the leader of the country but the leader of their party, and what takes precedence is the party, since–as should be clear to everyone–that’s more important. So it was only Conservative members of parliament who got to vote.

The same was true last time they held a no-confidence vote, back when Theresa May was prime minister. We could go back further, but I’m getting full of cobwebs so let’s head off in another direction. 

Screamingly irrelevant photo: a peony

While Conservative MPs cast their votes, the rest of the country got to sit back and wonder how many would vote which way. It’s like catching the clowns crawl out of that tiny car at the circus and wondering how many more there’ll be. Except the clowns are running the country.   

If it strikes you as odd that a single party gets to choose the head of the country, we’re nowhere near the center of the issue yet. The party also gets to set the rules on when and whether there’ll be a vote and how it’ll be run.

Yes, this business of having an unwritten constitution’s a barrel of laughs. I recommend it to any country that feels like the fun’s gone out of politics. 


The rules

Under the party’s current rules, if 15% of the Conservative MPs send a letter of no confidence in the prime minister to something called the 1922 Committee, then the committee has to call a vote.

At least I think it has to. What I’ve read goes a little hazy there. Maybe they have to and maybe they don’t but always have. So far, they’ve always called a vote.

The 1922 Committee, by the way, is called that because it was set up in 1923.

We’ll move on before we get upset, okay?

The committee’s an arm of the Conservative Party in the House of Commons and seems to insert its nearly-hundred-year-old hand into every Conservative leadership battle. It meets weekly, gathering up the backbench Conservatives–and by backbench I mean the MPs who don’t hold government positions, the ones down the food chain who aren’t personally in power even when their party is.

So the committee gathers the backbench Tories (Tory means Conservative but takes less time to type) and gives them a forum, allowing them to “air their concerns” and be a pain in the keyhole of Number 10 Downing Street, where the people who really have the power both govern and (since we’re talking about the current bunch), drink, fight, party, and vomit. 

To repeat myself, since I’ve wandered: Once the committee collects the letters from 15% of the Conservative MPs, it calls for a vote. Given the current breakdown of the House, it took 54 letters to trigger a vote. Once that happens, a prime minister then has to win a majority of the Conservative MPs plus one–in the current situation, 180–to stay in office.

The letters can be anonymous or the writers can make them public. They can also withdraw them if a) they decide the timing’s wrong, b) they were threatened thoroughly enough, or c) they were offered a juicy government post. 

Government posts? Johnson had already handed out 173 government jobs, making his MPs everything from members of the Cabinet to junior ministers to dog wranglers to extras who don’t have any lines but do hang around the edges of the scene in costume and then hope they don’t get edited out of the final cut. 

If you happen to hold one of those jobs, you’d think two or three times before voting yourself out of it.

Johnson carried 60% of his MPs–211 votes–which was a smaller-than-expected number according to at least according to one newspaper.

The party’s rules say that, having survived the vote, a prime minister is safe from another challenge for a year.

So is he in the clear? Well, no. The last time the Conservatives held a no-confidence vote, Theresa May was the prime minister and she scraped together a larger proportion of her party than Johnson has, but within eight months she was out on her ass.

How’d that work? Well, the committee threatened to change the rules and allow another vote before the year was up unless she set a date for her resignation. 

Better to jump than be pushed, she figured. Johnson, however, will need to not only be pushed, he’ll need to be wrapped in canvas, tied, and thrown overboard.

But there’s talk that the MPs who voted against Johnson may not wait for that. If they refuse to vote with the government–not necessarily voting against it but abstaining–they’ll deny Johnson hte powerful majority he’s had in Parliament, paralyzing him. Since they represent all the available wings, feet, and claws of the party and refer to themselves as a coalition of chaos, it’s hard to know if they’ll do anything that coordinated.


What happens when a prime minister loses a no-confidence vote?

They limp on as prime minister until they’re replaced, because the country has to have a prime minister, however vague and ineffective. Meanwhile, the party that tossed them out selects a new one–according to its own rules.

But that’s if it has a majority. If it doesn’t–say if two parties governed as a coalition–or if the party’s so badly split that it can’t come up with a candidate, it gets messy.

You thought it was already messy? Ha. Shows what you know.

I’ll simplify this, but basically if someone–anyone–can gather enough support for a new candidate, there’s a confidence vote held in 14 days. If they survive that, they’re the prime minister. If not, there’s a general election and all the MPs have to run for their seats again–something they very much don’t want to do unless, of course, they think their party can come back with a big majority, but that’s always a gamble. It’s hard to make predictions, especially about the future, as Yogi Berra is said to have said.

If no candidate emerges, then somewhere along the way the prime minister has to advise the queen that there’ll be an election, because the queen needs to know stuff like that.

The queen says, “Oh.”

Then everyone involved tears off their clothes and runs around Westminster Palace playing either banjos or tubas and throwing confetti.

Okay, I made some of that up. If you want a full (and sane) explanation of how it works, go look at the BBC’s graphic.


How other parties run a no-confidence vote

So far, I’ve only talked about how the Conservative Party holds a no-confidence vote, but since each party sets its own rules, they have no bearing on what other parties do in a similar situation. So let’s take a wider look.

Labour: Okay, this is awkward. I haven’t found a clear explanation of how the Labour Party holds a no-confidence vote. Possibly because it doesn’t really hold them. When Jeremy Corbyn led the party (which was the opposition then, not the government), his fellow MPs held a no-confidence vote but he didn’t resign since the party doesn’t have any rules governing what that meant or what to do about it if it should happen. He argued that his support among the members outweighed his lack of support among MPs. And you know what? Why shouldn’t it? When your party doesn’t have any relevant rules, it doesn’t have any relevant rules.

Liberal Democrats: I couldn’t even find that much for the Lib Dems. 

Other Parties: I gave up, leaving a few parties floating free.

What does it all mean? I haven’t a clue. A party being able to dump its leader, as the Tories can, sounds democratic but in practice it seems to give a lot of power to small groups within the party, such as the extreme Brexiteers. If that’s true, you could argue that the forms of democracy are giving a great deal of power to a minority at the expense of the majority, but I’m raising that as a question rather than offering it as an analysis. 


Parliamentary votes of no confidence

It’s also possible for parliament as a whole, not just the majority party, to hold a no-confidence vote, and if the government loses, that would, once upon a time, have triggered a general election. But the rules changed when David Cameron was the prime minister. He introduced a new system called-fixed term parliaments. Since then, nobody has a clue what happens. 

As the House of Commons Library explains it, “The consequences of a government losing what would have been considered a question of confidence before the Fixed-term Parliaments Act have not been tested since the Act was passed.”

In other words, it hasn’t happened since the rules changed. Maybe everyone moves one seat down the table and cries, “No room, no room.” Maybe we go back to the scenario with the confetti and the musical instruments. We’ll all just have to wait and see. 

Remember what I said about how much fun an unwritten constitution is?


The important stuff

Can we get to the stuff that really matters now? Sooner or later, Boris Johnson will be carried out of Number 10 kicking and screaming and wrapped in canvas, and the question on everyone’s mind is, What will happen to the wallpaper? 

What wallpaper? The horrible and very expensive wallpaper that Johnson and his wife paid for, but only after they were caught trying to have a major party donor pay for it.

I’m not prone to imagining myself in public office, for oh so many reasons, but I can’t help putting myself into  his successor’s comfortable slippers–you know, the ones she or he puts on after work when he or she tries to turn back into her or his real self if (could we use the plural here, please?) if they still remember who that is.

Where were we? I was putting myself in that person’s slippers and  looking at the wallpaper that Johnson will leave behind (but only because you can’t take it with you). On the one hand, it was ruinously expensive–£840 a roll. You can’t just tear that down, can you? On the other hand, it’s awful. Who could live with it? And what sort of impression does it give other heads of state? You couldn’t have a serious conversation in front of it. I’m not sure you could eat a frozen pizza in front of it either.

I’m not sure what you can do in front of it other than run.

Is the next prime minister going to have to break with tradition and live somewhere else? I wouldn’t rule it out.

By now, of course, you want to see it. You’ll find a couple of photos here, along with a discussion of the money and who’s related to who in what way. It’s all deliciously scandalous and, except for the occasional wallpaper joke, has been pretty much forgotten by now.

31 thoughts on “How no-confidence votes work in Britain

  1. I haven’t knowingly seen the wallpaper before, so I went to have a look. Who knew bad taste could be so expensive? I don’t think it will be very long before a new prime minister will be faced with the decision of living with it or doing something about it.

    Liked by 2 people

    • I hope you’re right, and you’ve made me think of some creative approaches–everything from painting over it (I’ve rented more than one apartment where people had painted over wallpaper that probably wasn’t as ugly and definitely wasn’t as expensive), or leaving it up and hanging some sort of framed sign about how and why–and more to the point, who. I could see having some fun with that. It would probably mean no one could stand to use that room, but the sacrifice might be worthwhile.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. I rather like the idea of getting rid of a Prime Minister for his poor taste in wallpaper. The Tory party is the most successful political party in the world ,I am led to believe, so perhaps their ruthless attitude to wallpaper is right. The Labour Party has an inferiority complex and the Lib Dems are congenitally incapable of discipline. We are therefore stuck with choosing wallpaper. As for written constitutions I shudder to think which specific amendment I would be required to sacrifice my children to. As an aside, could you shine your spotlight on those who teach PPE at Oxford? Surely an inept bunch of monumental proportions given the antics of their recent acolytes.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Great topic, but I think well beyond my reach. Are you volunteering?

      I don’t, when you come right down to it, think governments should fall over wallpaper, but I’ll set that minor quibble aside if it’ll bring the bastards down.


  3. Ok the gold is bad but at least the couch isn’t the same stuff. Yee gads! Sounds like fun over there! And all we have is the January 6 hearings! I love your blog and look forward to your take on this crazy world😀

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks, Martha. I’ve looked at those photos often enough to have a whole scene in my head involving trying to locate the couch and developing a terror of trying to sit on not-couch.

      Yes, it’s odd living inside this head.

      I’d have trouble finding much to laugh at about the Jan. 6 events, although I admit I haven’t tried. What’s happening over there scares me witless, and frankly I’m none too easy about what’s happening over here, including the attempt to deport refugees to Rwanda.


  4. >… if the government loses, that would, once upon a time, have
    > triggered a general election. But the rules changed when
    > David Cameron was the prime minister.

    The point here is that under the old rules (which mostly still apply in Canada, Australia, etc.) it automatically counts as a vote of no confidence if Parliament votes down the government’s budget, or a major piece of legislation.

    Under the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011 you can still have a vote of no confidence, but it only counts if they explicitly say ‘this House has no confidence in Her Majesty’s Government’. So what happens if Parliament repeatedly shows a lack of confidence, by rejecting major legislation (say, Theresa May’s withdrawal agreement), but refuses to come out and say it? Stalemate, that’s what.

    Of course all of this is academic, since the FTPA2011 has thankfully been superseded by the Dissolution and Calling of Parliament Act 2022, which restores the Queen’s prerogative to call elections. But it seems not to mention confidence votes at all, so are the old rules restored there as well? I would hope so, but I don’t think anybody knows!

    Liked by 1 person

    • And if you think THAT’S complicated, in Scandinavia you can have votes of no confidence in individual ministers! And frankly, I find many of Boris Johnson’s cabinet choices don’t inspire a lot of confidence.

      Liked by 1 person

    • The highlighter should go on “I don’t think anybody knows!” But with that said, I can’t help thinking how much the rules sound like the game we played when I was a kid, Captain, May I?: If you didn’t say, “Captain, may I?” you had to go back to the starting line. True, we didn’t say, “This House has no confidence” etc., but the spirit’s the same.


      • Interesting. Here it was ‘Mother, may I?’

        And for all the complexity, I rather like the fact that the Prime Minister can be removed without cause (and knows it).


        • …not that we’re short on causes, but I do see your point.

          When I moved to Minnesota, it was “Mother, may I?” there too. I have no idea if the Captain version was New York-wide or just in our neighborhood.


  5. Oh dear Lord ! Maybe just let Larry the Cat have his way with the wallpaper for a week or two. It couldn’t look worse.

    Over Here we HAVE a written Constitution, and it is in danger of being shredded like the wallpaper. Two words : Fili Buster.

    God bless the Queen for having tea with Paddington Bear !

    Lord Google only recognizes “PPE” as Personal Protective Equipment, which doesn;t sound like it would be taught at Oxofrd. Can you enlighten us ?

    Liked by 1 person

    • PPE is philosophy, politics, and economics, which are rolled into a ball and taught as a degree at university level. I haven’t studied them, but I have the impression that it gives the student a quick dip into three subjects, sort of like having a thin coating of dark, milk, and white chocolate (in other words, they stay on the outside), which are presumed to prepare you for a career in (I just checked this with Lord Google) “banking and finance, politics, journalism, broadcasting and new media, the law, political activism and campaigning, teaching, social work, voluntary organizations and charities, accountancy, business management, management consultancy, advertising, university ….”

      University what? No idea. I did’t click the link to learn more. And I may be unfair in saying it’s a thin coating, but I’m not sure how much of any one of those subjects you can take in when you have to dash on to the next one a minute later.

      On the other hand, neither Larry the Car nor Paddington Bear has a degree and they seem to manage just fine, so I may be overestimating the importance of education.


  6. Shows you how corrupt so many of the MPs are when they didn’t vote against him–who’s lining their pockets? The opposition here is always calling for non-confidence votes over anything they can think of, but they never succeed–such a performative waste of time!

    Liked by 1 person

    • There’s a saying that goes something like this: If you give a kid a hammer, you’ll be surprised how many things look like a nail. If the opposition has this tool–gee, it’s hard not to use it in the hope that someone will take them–or it–seriously.

      Liked by 1 person

  7. That peony is absolutely gorgeous. They’re such a wonderfully blowsy flower, and that shade of pink is stunning. Peonies could teach the Johnsons a great deal about good taste. Whether or not I feel for the next occupants depends entirely upon who that is – for example Liz Truss would surely see it as just another photo opportunity. Personally I vote for whoever suggested Larry the Cat be allowed to have at it for a week or so…

    Liked by 1 person

    • I don’t approve of Larry’s taste in employers, but since he wasn’t really consulted I can’t in decency hold it against him. I’m sure he could do wonders for the wallpaper.

      You do have a point about who the next occupant is. Some deserve no pity.

      Liked by 1 person

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